Purpose. The purpose of the study was to find the rate of musculoskeletal injuries in ultra-trail runners, investigate the most sensitive anatomical areas, and discover associated predicting factors to aid in the effective prevention and rapid rehabilitation of trail running injuries. Methods. Forty ultra trail runners responded to an epidemiological questionnaire. Results. At least one running injury was reported by 90% of the sample, with a total of 135 injuries were reported (111 overuse injuries, 24 appeared during competing). Lower back pain was the most common source of injury (42.5%). Running in the mountains (p = 0.0004) and following a personalized training schedule (p = 0.0995) were found to be protective factors. Runners involved in physical labor are associated with more injuries (p = 0.058). Higher-level runners are associated with more injuries than lower-level cohorts (p = 0.067), with symptoms most commonly arising in the lower back (p = 0.091), hip joint (p = 0.083), and the plantar surface of the foot (p = 0.054). Experienced runners (> 6 years) are at greater risk of developing injuries (p = 0.001), especially in the lower back (p = 0.012), tibia (p = 0.049), and the plantar surface of the foot (p = 0 .028). Double training sessions could cause hip joint injury (p = 0.060). Conclusions. In order to avoid injury, it is recommended to train mostly on mountain trails and have a training program designed by professionals.
Key words: running injuries, trail running, ultra distance
Purpose. The aim of the current investigation was to determine whether female recreational runners exhibit distinct patellar tendon loading patterns in relation to their male counterparts. Methods. Twelve male (age 26.55 ± 4.11 years, height 1.78 ± 0.11 m, mass 77.11 ± 5.06 kg) and twelve female (age 26.67 ± 5.34 years, height 1.67 ± 0.12 m, mass 63.28 ± 9.75 kg) runners ran over a force platform at 4.0 m · s–1. Lower limb kinematics were collected using an eight-camera optoelectric motion capture system which operated at 250 Hz. Patellar tendon loads were examined using a predictive algorithm. Sex differences in limb, knee and ankle joint stiffness were examined statistically using independent samples t tests. Results. The results indicate that patellar tendon force (male = 6.49 ± 2.28, female = 7.03 ± 1.35) and patelllar tendon loading rate (male = 92.41 ± 32.51, female = 111.05 ± 48.58) were significantly higher in female runners. Conclusions. Excessive tendon loading in female runners indicates that female runners may be at increased risk of patellar tendon pathologies.
Key words: running, sex, patellar tendon
Purpose. In view of the increasing prevalence of overweight at early ages and its possible association with physical inactivity, investigations into the best method to assess physical inactivity and its association with excess weight in epidemiological studies are required. This study aimed to examine the associations between cardiorespiratory fitness and physical activity with indicators of adiposity in an adolescent population. Methods. This cross-sectional study involved a random sample of 697 students aged 12–19 years from public schools in the metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Overweight was classified according to body mass index. Body fat was measured by bioelectrical impedance, cardiorespiratory fitness by a 9 min run/walk test (T9), and physical activity by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used to verify the magnitude of the associations. Results. Adolescents with poor T9 performance were more likely to be overweight (OR = 2.9, 95% CI 1.2–7.0) and have excess body fat (OR = 2.2, 95% CI 1.1–4.3) than those with better performance. Those classified as moderately active by the IPAQ were more likely to have excess body fat than those classified as active (OR = 1.8, 95% CI 1.2–2.8). Conclusions. Because of the greater magnitude of the association between cardiorespiratory fitness, as assessed by using the T9, with being overweight and having excess body fat, the T9 may serve as a valuable instrument in the school environment to identify inactive adolescents who are at risk of developing obesity.
Key words: physical fitness, motor activity, adiposity, adolescents
Purpose. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of 8-week-long interval training (targeting glycolytic capacity) on selected markers of physical fitness in amateur long-distance runners. Methods. The study involved 17 amateur long-distance runners randomly divided into an experimental (n = 8) and control (n = 9) group. The control group performed three or four continuous training sessions per week whereas the experimental group performed two interval running training sessions and one continuous running training session. A graded treadmill exercise test and the 12-min Cooper test were performed pre- and post-training. Results. VO2max and the rate of recovery increased in the experimental group. Relative oxygen uptake, minute ventilation, and heart rate speed decreased in low- (6 km/h) and medium-intensity (12 km/h) running. Conclusions. Both training modalities showed similar results. However, the significant differences in training volume (4–8 min interval training vs. 40–150 min continuous training) indicates that the modalities targeting glycolytic capacity may be more efficient for amateur runners prepare for long-distance events.
Key words: physical endurance, endurance training, interval training, maximal oxygen uptake, long-distance running
Purpose. The aim of the study was to examine age differences in the maximal power and height of rise of the body mass centre measured in spike jump (SPJ) and counter-movement jump (CMJ), and power-velocity relationship of lower extremities between cadet and U23 age class judo athletes. Methods. Seven cadets (age 16.6 ± 0.7 years) and eight U23 age class (21.3 ± 1.4 years) Polish judoists took part in the study. The maximal power and height of jump were measured at SPJ and CMJ jumps. Power–velocity relations (P–v) were determined from 5 maximal cycle ergometer exercise bouts at increasing external loads equal to 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0 and 12.5% of body weight (BW). Results. Cadet judoists had a significantly smaller maximal power output (11.56 ± 1.21 W · kg–1) than U23 athletes (12.69 ± 0.67 W · kg–1). The optimal velocity was similar in both group (119.3 ± 16.0 rpm and 119.6 ± 15.5 rpm, respectively). Significant age differences were founded between the cadet and U23 athletes for power output at external load equal 12.5% BW. Cadet judoists generated insignificantly lower maximal power in CMJ and SPJ than U23 judo athletes with except of the absolute maximal power in SPJ. The age difference was observed in height of CMJ. Conclusions. Based on the characteristics of F–v curve we can see in which direction follow the effects of training. Application of CMJ and SPJ in jumping test allows to assess changes in neuromuscular coordination. The use of the both methods give better information to optimal training control.
Key words: force-velocity relationship, power output, judo, spike jump, counter-movement jump
Purpose. Recreational cross-country skiers can benefit from a performance diagnostic when planning a training program. The aim of this study was to establish a simple test protocol to measure endurance capacity and provide training recommendations. Methods. The relationship between endurance performance and cross-country skiing technique was assessed using two tests. First, a lactate threshold test whereby running speed was determined on a treadmill at 4 mmol/l blood lactate concentration. Second, participants completed a variation of the Cooper test using skating technique on flat terrain to determine the distance covered in 12 min and maximum heart rate. Results. There was a correlative (r = 0.18 respectivelly R2 = 0.43) relationship of between the distance covered in the Cooper test and treadmill running speed at 4 mmol/l blood lactate concentration. Conclusions. The two tests allow recreational athletes to rank themselves with regards to their endurance capacity within a population. The relationship between distance covered and maximum heart rate can indicate whether future training should focus on technical or physical improvement.
Key words: performance testing, cross-country skiing, technical skills
Purpose. The purpose of this study was to determine body image and body satisfaction in Polish adult men involved in resistance training and to investigate their relationships with objective anthropometric and training characteristics. Methods. The study included 176 males aged 18–31 years with 1–14 years resistance training experience. The Figure Rating Scale, Body Satisfaction Scale and a self-designed questionnaire were administered. Results. Approximately 62% of the participants would like to be more muscular, only 29% accepted their appearance and 9% would like to be less muscular. The body selected as the personal ideal (M = 5.34) was less muscular than the body considered by the participants to be ideal by other men (normative body; M = 6.07) and was more muscular than the body thought to be most attractive to women (M = 5.10). Actual and ideal body muscularity correlated positively with age and body mass, height and BMI. Dissatisfaction with trunk and motor characteristics correlated positively with ideal body and the body considered most attractive to women as well as with the discrepancy indices between the above factors and the actual body. Conclusions. Men regularly involved in resistance training were found to strive for a muscular physique. The normative body, the physique believed to be desired by other men, was more muscular than what was considered preferential to women. However, the latter constitutes a stronger determinant of the level of body satisfaction in men engaged in resistance training.
Key words: body image, body satisfaction, resistance training, men
Purpose. The present study aimed to examine the current methods employed to assess anticipation in soccer players as well as to elicit the main findings of recent studies. Methods. The study was carried out in systematic review form and its sample comprised nine scientific papers published in academic journals. Only the studies involving soccer players (professionals and amateurs, except goalkeepers) were included in this review. Results and conclusions. We observed that most of the studies employed video footage obtained from soccer matches, which are occluded at a given point for study participants to quickly and precisely elicit the positions of opponents, teammates and the ball as well as anticipate actions (dribbling, shooting, passing) from surrounding players (teammates and opponents). In addition, the studies compared the performance of players from both high and low competitive levels in anticipation tasks.
Key words: association football, cognition, cognitive assessment, anticipation skills
University School of Physical Education in Wrocław
al. I. J. Paderewskiego 35
51-612 Wrocław, Poland