One of the variables that influence motor learning is the learner’s previous experience, which may provide perceptual and motor elements to be transferred to a novel motor skill. For swimming skills, several motor experiences may prove effective. Purpose. The aim was to analyse the influence of previous experience in playing in water, swimming lessons, and music or dance lessons on learning the breaststroke kick. Methods. The study involved 39 Physical Education students possessing basic swimming skills, but not the breaststroke, who performed 400 acquisition trials followed by 50 retention and 50 transfer trials, during which stroke index as well as rhythmic and spatial configuration indices were mapped, and answered a yes/no questionnaire regarding previous experience. Data were analysed by ANOVA (p = 0.05) and the effect size (Cohen’s d ≥0.8 indicating large effect size). Results. The whole sample improved their stroke index and spatial configuration index, but not their rhythmic configuration index. Although differences between groups were not significant, two types of experience showed large practical effects on learning: childhood water playing experience only showed major practically relevant positive effects, and no experience in any of the three fields hampered the learning process. Conclusions. The results point towards diverse impact of previous experience regarding rhythmic activities, swimming lessons, and especially with playing in water during childhood, on learning the breaststroke kick.
Key words: breaststroke kick; motor learning; previous experience
Purpose. The aim of the present study was assessment of laterality of the legs of young female soccer players and their non-training counterparts. Methods. The study sample comprised 9 female soccer players and 19 non-training girls. They underwent three measurement sessions, one every six months. The applied tests included kinesthetic differentiation, rate of local movements, static balance, single-leg hop, rate of global movements, strength and speed, and functional asymmetry of the legs tests. Results. The soccer players were better than the controls in their performance of the rate of local movements, rate of global movements, kinesthetic differentiation, single-leg 15m timed hop and static balance tests. Smaller differences between the results of the left and the right legs in soccer players, than in non-training girls, were noted in the rate of local movements, rate of global movements and kinesthetic differentiation tests. In the static balance test, the differences were greater in the group of soccer players. Conclusions. Lateralization of the lower limbs is a highly complex characteristic with a different variability in athletes than in nontraining individuals. The results of the present study also point to the specialization of soccer players’ left legs in body balance and single-leg hop tests.
Key words: laterality; female soccer; coordination; asymmetry
Purpose. Sport activities comprise the main forms of physical activity, which include sport disciplines and sport events. The main aim of the work is to evaluate the differentiation of the somatic constitution, physical fitness and the respiratory abilities in officer cadets of the Military Academy of Land Forces, depending on the level of their sports activity. Methods. The research material was gathered as a result of testing officer cadets of the Military Academy of Land Forces in 2014. The testing covered a research sample of 90 men. The mean age of the examined cadets was 22.9 years. Examinations of the students included anthropometric measurements, physical fitness tests, spirometry and a survey. Results. The results indicate the lack of significant differences in the body build characteristics of officer cadets. Only the body mass index was different. Separated groups of students, in term of sports activity, were characterised by similar physical fitness and the different level of the efficiency of the respiratory system. The higher level of these respiratory abilities distinguished sports active officer cadets, in comparison with passive officer cadets. Conclusions. Sports activities in leisure time did not turn out to be a factor, which significantly differentiated the somatic characteristics of officer cadets. Sports activity was not also part of lifestyle, which significantly differentiated the level of the majority of the analysed functional and respiratory abilities. Only in the case of the cardio-respiratory efficiency, forced expiratory volume in 1 second, forced vital capacity, active cadets were characterised by a significantly higher level of these physiological abilities, in comparison with less active cadets.
Key words: sports activity; somatic constitution; physical fitness
Purpose. The aim of our investigation was to establish the efficiency of the integrated physical education classes for schoolchildren with minor deviations in health. Methods. Sociological (questionnaire), biomedical, pedagogical (testing), psycho-diagnostic, and mathematical statistics. Pupils (N = 1417) of secondary school (both sexes, 5th−9th forms, i.e. aged 10−15) were examined. Results. The characteristics of physical and mental development in the process of integrated physical education proved to be significantly better for different sex and age groups. Analysis of physical fitness characteristics shows that integrated physical education classes turned out to be more effective for schoolchildren with minor health deviations than for apparently healthy students. Integrated physical education classes are more effective for students’ dexterity than for their power endurance. Integrated physical education classes are more effective for female students than for male ones; for schoolchildren with minor health deviations in older age groups (7th−9th forms) than for younger schoolchildren. Those schoolchildren who attended integrated physical education classes expressed significantly better attitudes to physical education than their peers who studied in a segregated environment. Conclusions. Integrated physical education classes are a more progressive and effective form of physical education in terms of their beneficial effect upon the physical and mental development of secondary school children with minor health distortions.
Key words: inclusive physical culture; pupils; health groups
Purpose. Previous studies have studied the role of proprioception on the setting of anticipatory postural adjustments (APA) during gait initiation. However, these studies did not investigate the role of proprioception in the sagittal APA setting. We aimed to investigate the role of proprioception manipulation to induce APA sagittal adaptations on gait initiation. Methods. Fourteen healthy adults performed gait initiation without, and with, vibration applied before movement onset, and during movement. In addition, the effects of two different vibration frequencies (80 and 120Hz) were tested. Vibration was applied bilaterally on the tibialis anterior, rectus femoris and trapezius superior. The first step characteristics, ground reaction forces and CoP behaviour were assessed. Results. Vibration improved gait initiation performance regardless of the moment it was applied. CoP velocity during the initial phase of APA was increased by vibration only when it was applied before movement. When vibration was applied to disturb the movement, no effects on the CoP behaviour were observed. Manipulation of vibration frequency had no effects. Conclusions. Rather than proprioception manipulation, the results suggest that post-vibratory effects and attentional mechanisms were responsible for our results. Taken together, the results show that sagittal APA setting is robust to proprioception manipulation.
Key words: proprioception; vibration; gait initiation; anticipatory postural adjustment
Purpose. The aim of this study was to determine the changes in postural physiological tremor following maximum intensity effort performed on arm ergometer by young male and female swimmers. Methods. Ten female and nine male young swimmers served as subjects in the study. Forearm tremor was measured accelerometrically in the sitting position before the 30-second Wingate Anaerobic Test on arm ergometer and then 5, 15 and 30 minutes post-test. Results. Low-frequency tremor log-amplitude (L1−5) increased (repeated factor: p < 0.05) from −7.92 ± 0.45 to −7.44 ± 0.45 and from −6.81 ± 0.52 to −6.35 ± 0.58 in women and men, respectively (gender: p < 0.05) 5 minute post-test. Tremor log-amplitude (L15−20) increased (repeated factor: p < 0.001) from −9.26 ± 0.70 to −8.59 ± 0.61 and from −8.79 ± 0.65 to −8.39 ± 0.79 in women and men, respectively 5 minute post-test. No effect of gender was found for high frequency range.The increased tremor amplitude was observed even 30 minute post-exercise. Mean frequency of tremor spectra gradually decreased post-exercises (p < 0.001). Conclusions. Exercise-induced changes in tremor were similar in males and females. A fatigue produced a decrement in the mean frequency of tremor what suggested decreased muscle stiffness post-exercise. Such changes intremorafter exercise may be used as the indicator of fatigue in the nervous system.
Key words: fatigue; frequency analysis; swimming; Wingate test
Purpose. The aim of our study was to assess the relationship between 25(OH)D levels and skinfold thickness in Poland’s premier league (Ekstraklasa) football players. Methods. We enrolled 43 Poland’s premier league football players. The mean age was 22.7 ± 5.3 years. Serum levels of 25(OH)D were measured by electrochemiluminescence (ECLIA) using the Elecsys system (Roche, Switzerland). Skinfold measurements were taken with a Harpenden-type skinfold calliper body fat tester, characterised by a constant pressure of 10 g/mm2. Results. Our study showed decreased serum 25(OH)D levels in 74.4% of the professional football players. We did show a statistically significant negative correlation between the 25(OH)D levels and the biceps skinfold thickness (r = −0.33), iliac crest skinfold thickness (r = −0.43), the sum of all the studied parameters (r = −0.5) and percentage of body fat (r = −0.49). Conclusions. Our results suggest that athletes with higher content of the adipose tissue may be at a higher risk of vitamin D deficiency, and that 25(OH)D levels need to be monitored in professional athletes, particularly during the winter season.
Key words: fat mass; skinfold; vitamin D; athletes
Purpose. Relaxing in the athlete’s training process is underutilized. Relaxation techniques, however, should be taught from the very beginning of the footballer’s training career. The main aim of this study was to present the effect of progressive muscle relaxation on pressure pain threshold levels and the effectiveness of the footballer’s training. Methods. A sample of 32 football players participated in the therapeutic program consisting of 8 PMR sessions. Before and after applying a pressure therapy, the pain threshold in the lumbar region was measured by a dolorimeter and the Cooper test was carried out to determine the footballers’ level of endurance. Results. PMR training did not increase significantly the pain threshold level in the experimental group (p > 0.05), but it increased significantly the distance covered in the Cooper test (p = 0.04). Analysis of the Spearman rank correlation was also carried out (p = 0.81). Conclusions. PMR does not lower pain perception threshold. PMR therapy increases the distance measured by the Cooper test. In order to determine the role of PMR in injury prevention, further research is necessary.
Key words: progressive muscle relaxation; pain threshold; effectiveness of training; football players
Purpose. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of regular swimming activity on the respiratory system of smokers and non-smokers. Methods. The study included 196 students, aged 19 to 24 years, attending weekly swimming classes. All students underwent pulmonary function testing before and after participating in a swimming program for 10 months. Measurements included forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), and peak expiratory flow (PEF). Maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressure at the mouth (PImax, PEmax) and the percentage carboxyhemoglobin level in blood (%CoHb) were also measured. Results. After 10 months of regular swimming activity the values of FVC, PEF, MIP and MEP increased in the non-smoking as well as in the smoking group, while the FEV1 increased only among smokers. The percentage of CoHB level in the blood decreased in both groups. Conclusions. The study confirmed the positive effect of swimming on respiratory system function and the importance of promoting physical activity such as swimming among cigarette smokers as well as non-smokers.
Key words: swimming; respiratory function; smoking
University School of Physical Education in Wrocław
al. I. J. Paderewskiego 35
51-612 Wrocław, Poland