Purpose. Falls are among the main disabling events for elderly adults and the identification of old people prone to falls enables the development of preventive and rehabilitative strategies. This study aimed to develop a simple tool, based on easily obtained variables (anthropometric measurements, motor performance tests and sociodemographic characteristics), to early identify community-dwelling old people prone to falls. Methods. The population-based household study was conducted among 316 elders ( 60 years old) of both sexes, living in the urban area of Lafaiete Coutinho in Brazil. History of falls in the previous 12 months (dependent variable), sociodemographic characteristics, anthropometric measurements and motor performance tests results (explanatory variables) were recorded, and a multivariate logistic regression was applied to identify the association between the explanatory variables and the history of falls. Fall probability for each elderly adult was calculated from the logistic regression parameters, and the predictive power of the final model and the cutoff for higher propensity to fall were evaluated on the basis of the receiver operating characteristic curve. Results. The prevalence of falls was 25.8% and the final model was influenced by the variables of sex (female) and poor performance in the balance test. The estimated probability model predicted approximately 66.5% (95% CI, 61–72%) of the falls. The sensitivity and specificity were 58 and 70%, respectively. Conclusions. We conclude that there is a high prevalence of falls among the studied elderly individuals, and the proposed method allowed to construct a simple tool for screening old adults prone to fall.
Key words: postural balance, aging, logistic regression
Purpose. Since human voice characteristics are specific to each individual, numerous anthropological studies have been oriented to find significant relationships between voice and morpho-functional features. The goal of this study was to identify the correlation between seven morpho-functional variables and six voice acoustic parameters in sportsmen. Methods. Following the protocols of the International Biological Program, seven morpho-functional variables and six voice acoustic parameters have been measured in 88 male professional athletes from Kosovo, aged 17–35 years, during the period of April–October 2013. The statistical analysis was accomplished through the SPSS program, version 20. The obtained data were analysed through descriptive parameters and with Spearman’s method of correlation analysis. Results. Spearman’s method of correlation showed significant negative correlations (R = –0.215 to –0.613; p = 0.05) between three voice acoustic variables of the fundamental frequency of the voice sample (Mean, Minimum, and Maximum Pitch) and six morpho-functional measures (Body Height, Body Weight, Margaria-Kalamen Power Test, Sargent Jump Test, Pull-up Test, and VO2max.abs). Conclusions. The significant correlations imply that the people with higher stature have longer vocal cords and a lower voice. These results encourage investigations on predicting sportsmen’s functional abilities on the basis of their voice acoustic parameters.
Key words: voice parameters, morpho-functional measures, professional soccer player
Purpose. The aim of the study was to evaluate walking economy and physiological responses at two walking speeds in males with similar absolute body mass but different body composition. Methods. The study involved 22 young men with similar absolute body mass, BMI, aerobic performance, calf and thigh circumference. The participants differed in body composition: body fat (HBF group) and lean body mass (HLBM group). In the graded test, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and maximal heart rate were measured. Walking economy was evaluated during two walks performed at two different speeds (4.8 and 6.0 km · h–1). Results. The VO2max was similar in both groups, as were the physiological responses during slow walking. The absolute oxygen uptake or oxygen uptake relative to body mass did not significantly differentiate the studied groups. The only indicator significantly differentiating the two groups was oxygen uptake relative to LBM. Conclusions. Body composition does not significantly affect walking economy at low speed, while during brisk walking, the economy is better in the HLBM vs. HBF group, provided that walking economy is presented as oxygen uptake relative to LBM. For this reason, we recommend this manner of oxygen uptake normalization in the evaluation of walking economy.
Key words: body fat, lean body mass, metabolic cost, oxygen uptake, exercise
Purpose. The aim of the study was to analyse the prevalence and factors associated with not performing physical exercise in undergraduate students. Methods. The sample was composed of 2738 undergraduate students of Londrina city, Paraná, Brazil. The dependent variables were: not performing physical exercise of moderate intensity for at least 30 minutes per week; not performing vigorous physical exercise for at least 20 minutes per week; not performing muscular strengthening exercises (8–12 repetitions) in a week. The independent variables were gender, age, skin colour, marital status, housing, study pattern, year of course, paid work, and area of the course. Odds ratio (OR) was estimated by multivariate analysis with the use of binary logistic regression. Results. The prevalence of undergraduate students not performing physical exercise of moderate intensity, of vigorous intensity, or muscular strengthening exercises was 47.3, 61.0, and 66.2%, respectively. Female sex was associated with a risk of not performing moderate physical exercise (OR = 1.23), vigorous physical exercise (OR = 1.47), and strengthening exercises (OR = 1.22). Undergraduate students of exact sciences (OR = 1.40 and 1.52), juridical sciences (OR = 1.48 and 1.51), and humanities (OR = 1.45 and 1.52) were at risk of not performing physical exercise of moderate or vigorous intensity, respectively. Being a 2nd (OR = 0.79), 3rd (OR = 0.74), or 4th (OR = 0.71) year student was bound with a lower likelihood of not performing physical exercise of moderate intensity. Conclusions. Intervention programmes with the aim of promoting physical exercise practice in undergraduate students should consider gender, year, and area of the course.
Key words: young adult, motor activity, life style, health
Purpose. A common polymorphism in the angiotensin converting enzyme I gene (the ACE I/D variant) represents one of the first characterized and the most widely studied genetic variants in the context of elite athletes status and performance related traits. The aim of the study was to determine the genotype and allele distribution of the allele and genotype of the ACE gene in Polish male football players. Methods. The total of 106 Polish male professional football players were recruited. They were divided into groups according to the position in the field: forwards, defenders, midfielders, and goalkeepers. For controls, samples were prepared with 115 unrelated volunteers. DNA was extracted from the buccal cells donated by the subjects, and the PCR amplification of the polymorphic region of the ACE gene containing either the insertion (I) or deletion (D) fragment was performed. Results. The genotype distribution and allele frequencies among all football players did not differ significantly when compared with sedentary control individuals (p = 0.887, p = 0.999, respectively). Likewise, the analysis of forwards, defenders, midfielders, and goalkeepers revealed no significant differences in either ACE genotype or allele frequencies. Conclusions. We did not provide evidence for difference of variation of the ACE I/D polymorphism between Polish football players and controls, as we did not obtain any statistically significantly higher frequency of either of the analysed alleles (I and D) or genotypes (DD, ID, and II) in the studied subgroups. It may be suspected that harbouring of I/D allelic variants of the ACE gene neither decreases nor increases the probability of being a professional football player in Poland.
Key words: ACE, gene, football players
Purpose. Hypercholesterolaemia is a highly prevalent condition that has major health- and cost-related implications for the society. Aerobic-type exercise improves lipoprotein-lipid profiles, cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition in healthy young women. Thus, the aim of the study was to assess the impact of 9 weeks of low-high aerobic-type exercise on the lipid profile among young women. Methods. On the basis of the lipid profile, 64 women (median age, 21.8 years; range, 19.0–24.7 years) were divided into two groups: with low (LRH) and intermediate (IRH) risk of developing hypercholesterolaemia. The participants completed a 9-week-long low-high aerobic exercise programme. Before and after the training programme, we determined the lipid profile: triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), lipoprotein cholesterol: HDL-C and LDL-C, and glucose levels. Selected cardiorespiratory fitness variables and body composition were also determined. Results. It was found that aerobic-type fitness exercise in the IRH group caused statistically significant decreases in TC and TG levels in comparison with baseline values. Significant increase in maximum oxygen uptake and decrease in HDL-C in the LRH group were also observed. Conclusions. Aerobic fitness exercises, a combination of two alternating styles, could influence the blood lipid profile by decreasing plasma TC and TG levels. In non-athlete women, physical activity may be a good tool to prevent cardiovascular diseases.
Key words: aerobic effort, cardiorespiratory variables, hyperlipidaemia prevention, lipid profile, physical activity
Purpose. It is posited that functional laterality is influenced by the generation and conduction of neural signals and therefore associated with sensorimotor control. The question arises if symmetry or asymmetry in sensorimotor processing affects the development of symmetric or asymmetric motor programs in the lower extremities. The purpose of the study was to examine the mechanisms of the human mobility moto-control – the process of maintaining body balance in a standing position through an appropriate course of distribution of ground reaction forces in a time frame, in a situation requiring lower extremity movement symmetry. Methods. The autocorrelation function was calculated for ground reaction forces (in the three orthogonal axes) registered during 45 s of bipedal upright stance in two conditions (eyes open and closed). Results. Minor albeit significant deficiencies in postural muscle control were revealed as a function of time, as evidenced in the decay of the autocorrelation function to zero (T0) between the right and left foot for the mediolateral ground reaction force signal. However, the results attest to symmetrical sensorimotor control between both feet. Conclusions. Motor actions (postural corrections) performed in long-duration tasks may have less of an effect on sensorimotor control than those applied in shorter duration projections. ANOVA and correlation analysis (across all variables) of the right and left foot T0 indicate considerable symmetry in the control of force magnitude and direction during upright standing.
Key words: symmetry, asymmetry, foot, force, balance, autocorrelation function
Purpose. The aim of the study was to identify the heart rate deflection point (HRDP) and the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) threshold (DmaxRPE) during the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test level 1 (Yo-Yo IR1) in university basketball players. Methods. Eleven male university basketball athletes performed two incremental tests, interspersed by seven days, in a random crossover pattern: (1) the treadmill test with the initial velocity of 6 km · h–1, increments of 1 km · h–1 each 2 minutes, and pauses of 15 seconds between the stages; (2) the Yo-Yo IR1. Results. During the Yo-Yo IR1, the HRDP and the DmaxRPE were identified only in six and seven subjects, respectively. In the treadmill test, the HRDP and the DmaxRPE were found in 11 and 10 individuals, respectively. Additionally, there were no differences between the velocity of occurrence of the HRDP and the DmaxRPE recognized in the treadmill test and in the Yo-Yo IR1 (p > 0.05). Conclusions. The results suggest that if the goal is to determine aerobic capacity by the HRDP and the DmaxRPE, Yo-Yo IR1 should not be used. Instead, the treadmill test is a reliable tool.
Key words: incremental test, perceived exertion, aerobic capacity
University School of Physical Education in Wrocław
al. I. J. Paderewskiego 35
51-612 Wrocław, Poland