Purpose. The study is based on the hypothesis that individuals with congenital total or partial loss of vision develop more effective gait adjustments compared with those who are sighted, after stimulation of the vestibular system. Therefore, they are able to manage their motor control better. The aim was to investigate the way individuals with congenital total or partial vision loss adjust their gait following vestibular stimulation, compared with sighted blindfolded individuals.
Methods. The total of 10 children with congenital visual impairments constituted the experimental group and 10 children with normal vision (blindfolded with special mask) formed the control group. We performed gait analysis (forward and backward gait direction) with a three-dimensional gait analysis system. The walking speed (m/s) of each group, before and after the vestibular stimulation, during forward and backward gait, was analysed.
Results. The average walking speed of the children in the experimental group, statistically, revealed no significant differences before and after the vestibular stimulation. Conversely, in the control group, statistically significant differences in the mean walking speed before and after the vestibular system stimulation were found.
Conclusions. Children with congenital total or partial blindness may adapt their gait strategy more adequately, after vestibular stimulation, during forward and backward gait, as compared with sighted blindfolded children. Consequently, the first group is in the position to manage their motor control more sufficiently.
Key words: children, vestibular system, gait, stimulation, blindness, motor control
INFLUENCE OF NEURAL MOBILIZATION OF LOWER LIMBS ON THE FUNCTIONAL PERFORMANCE AND DYNAMIC BALANCE IN ASYMPTOMATIC INDIVIDUALS: A CROSS-OVER RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
GUILHERME S. NUNES, SHELLEY UHLIG, LUCIANE MARI DO AMARAL RIBAS, FERNANDA BOTTIN GONÇALVES, BRUNA WAGECK, MARCOS DE NORONHA
Purpose. To verify the influence of neural mobilization (NM) applied to the lower limbs on functional performance and dynamic balance in asymptomatic individuals.
Methods. The total of 30 asymptomatic participants (15 women and 15 men; age, 30.1 ± 6.7 years; height, 1.70 ± 0.1 m; body mass, 73.1 ± 13.4 kg) were enrolled in this cross-over randomized controlled trial. The participants received NM of the femoral, sciatic, and tibial nerves, as well as static stretching (SS) of the following muscles: hamstring, lumbar, piriformis, hip adductors, hip flexors, quadriceps, and triceps surae. The order of applying NM and SS was randomly decided and the interventions were performed at least 48 hours apart. Functional performance was measured by performance in vertical jump (VJ) and dynamic balance was measured with the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT).
Results. There were no differences between NM and SS for height (cm) in VJ (p = 0.16) or in the distance reached (%) in the SEBT, normalized by lower limb length (dominant limb: anterior, p = 0.35; posterolateral, p = 0.69; posteromedial, p = 0.50 / non-dominant limb: anterior, p = 0.68; posterolateral, p = 1.00; posteromedial, p = 0.77).
Conclusions. NM did not exert any influence on functional performance or dynamic balance. Thereby, having no positive or negative impact on performance, NM can be used at any time of treatment.
The relationships between gross motor coordination and sport-specific skills in adolescent non-athletes
Daniel V. Chagas, John Ozmun, Luiz Alberto Batista
Purpose. While the usefulness of gross motor coordination score as predictor of sports performance in young athletes have been demonstrated, practical applications in the settings where the focus is not on elite performance is limited. Further, little is known to what extent gross motor coordination score is associated with sport-specific skills among adolescent non-athletes. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between the degree of gross motor coordination and execution in specific volleyball tests among adolescent non-athletes.
Methods. Thirty-four students (27 females and 7 males), aged 13-14 years, who regularly participated in volleyball during physical education classes were randomly recruited. Gross motor coordination was assessed using the Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder. Motor performance on volley-specific skills was assessed using two product-oriented tasks: volleyball under service; and service reception. Correlation and linear regression analyses were used to examine the associations between motor coordination scores and motor performance in volley-specific skills.
Results. Motor coordination score was positively correlated with motor performance on specific skills (r = 0.503, p = 0.02). Linear regression analysis revealed that motor coordination score accounted for 23% of the variance in the motor performance on volleyball skills (R2= 0.253, R2 adjusted = 0.230; F = 10.836, p = 0.02).
Conclusions. The degree of gross motor coordination seems to play a significant role in execution of specific volleyball tasks.
Key words: motor skills, adolescents, volleyball, physical education, school sports
UNDERWATER DOLPHIN KICKS OF YOUNG SWIMMERS – EVALUATION OF EFFECTIVENESS BASED ON KINEMATIC ANALYSIS
ŁUKASZ WĄDRZYK, LESZEK NOSIADEK, ROBERT STASZKIEWICZ
Purpose. The aim of the study was to distinguish the kinematic indicators influencing the average horizontal velocity of swimming (vCOM) with underwater dolphin kicks (UDK).
Methods. The study involved 15 boys and 20 girls (mean age, 11.5 ± 1.00 years; height, 1.57 ± 0.09 m; training experience, 2.5 ± 1.00 years) practicing swimming 7 times a week. We determined the body height (H), the length of the body with the arms lifted (Lb), and the best result in the 50-m freestyle (pbt); characteristic anthropological points were marked on the body. The subjects performed UDK after a water-start for a distance of ca. 8 m (without a push-off from the wall). Movements were recorded with an underwater camera. The recordings were kinematically analysed with the SkillSpector program. On this basis, we calculated vCOM, frequency of movement (f), amplitude of movement (A), horizontal displacement in one cycle (Dpk), maximum flexion in the knee joints (KFmax), the product of f and A (IAf), the Strouhal number (St), and relative amplitude of toe movement (AREL).
Results. The movements of the subjects were characterized as follows: vCOM = 1.08 ± 0.13 m/s, f = 2.00 ± 0.39 Hz, A = 0.46 ± 0.08 m, Dpk = 0.58 ± 0.10 m, IAf = 0.90 ± 0.11, KFmax = 71.37 ± 9.15°, St = 0.83 ± 0.08, AREL = 0.22 ± 0.04. A statistically significant correlation was found between vCOM and: H (r = 0.35), pbt (r = –0.52), f (r = 0.47), IAf (r = 0.72), KFmax (r = –0.53), and St (r = –0.36).
Conclusions. UDK of young swimmers is characterized by low-speed swimming. This is effected by low swimming efficiency (low values of IAf and St, high value of KFmax). The proper amplitude and frequency of movements should be a priority in improving UDK. The UDK technique should be particularly enhanced among short competitors.
RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN ANTHROPOMETRIC FEATURES, BODY COMPOSITION, AND ANAEROBIC ALACTIC POWER IN ELITE POST-PUBERTAL AND MATURE MALE TAEKWONDO ATHLETES
MICHAŁ BORACZYŃSKI, TOMASZ BORACZYŃSKI, ROBERT PODSTAWSKI, JAMES LASKIN, DARIUSZ CHOSZCZ, ADAM LIPIŃSKI
Purpose. The paper describes the relationships between anthropometric features, body composition, and anaerobic alactic power (AAP) in elite post-pubertal and mature male taekwondo athletes.
Methods. The sample of 41 taekwondo athletes was divided into two groups: post-pubertal (P-P, n = 19, Mage = 15.6 ± 1.1 years) and mature (M, n = 22, Mage = 20.7 ± 2.8 years). Anthropometric features (WB-150, ZPU Tryb-Wag, Poland), body composition (BC-418 MA, Tanita, Japan), maturational status (Pubertal Maturational Observational Scale), and AAP (10-s version of the Wingate Anaerobic Test) were assessed.
Results. Post-hoc testing revealed significant between-group differences (3.2–20.4%, p < 0.01) in all anthropometric and body composition measures, with effect sizes (ES) between −0.79 and −1.25 (p < 0.001), except for fat content and percentage of skeletal muscle mass (SMM) (p ≥ 0.05). In group M, the maximal power output (Pmax) was greater (ES = −1.15, p < 0.001) and the time of its attainment shorter (ES = 0.59, p < 0.001) than in group P-P. Correlation analyses indicated notably strong associations between body mass (BM) and Pmax in group P-P (r = 0.950 [95% CI, 0.85–0.98], p < 0.001) and M (r = 0.926 [95% CI, 0.81–0.97], p < 0.001), and similar-sized strong correlations between fat-free mass (FFM) and Pmax in group P-P (r = 0.955 [95% CI, 0.86–0.99], p < 0.001) and M (r = 0.924 [95% CI, 0.82–0.96], p < 0.001). Additionally, a strong correlation was found between body height and Pmax in groups P-P and M (r = 0.805 [95% CI, 0.54–0.92], p < 0.001 and r = 0.819 [95% CI, 0.58–0.93], p < 0.001, respectively). Linear regression analyses demonstrated that FFM, BM, and absolute SMM best explained the variance in Pmax in both groups (r, 0.939–0.951; r2, 0.882–0.909).
Conclusions. The strong correlations observed in both groups between BM, FFM, SMM, and Pmax demonstrate the significant effects of body size and composition on AAP. By determining the current levels of these measures for individual athletes and via regressive modelling, one can anticipate the individual developmental dynamics of AAP. On the basis of anthropometric profiling, we recommend the recruitment and selection of tall and lean individuals with high anaerobic predisposition in taekwondo. Such a profile may enable coaches to better predict future athlete development, particularly in AAP.
Relationship between Anthropometric Measures and Sagittal Spinal Curvatures in Adult Male Handball Players
Mariam Abd-Elmoneim Ameer, Amr Almaz Abdel-aziem
Purpose. Increasing anthropometric measures brings considerable spinal loads during sports practice, which inversely affects the adaptation abilities of the spinal structures; this in turn influences the spinal curvatures. So, this study was conducted to explore the relationship between anthropometric measures and sagittal spinal curvatures in handball players.
Methods. Eighty three male handball players were divided into two groups depending on their body height: group I (age = 23.62 ± 2.07 years) consisted of forty handball players with height above average and group II (age= 24.63 ± 2.58 years) consisted of forty three handball players with height below average. The thoracic and lumbar curvatures, and trunk height were measured by using Formetric III 4D Spine & Posture Analysis System.
Results. The thoracic kyphosis of group I was significantly higher than that of group II (p = 0.038) without significant difference in lumbar lordosis (p = 0.312), and significant difference in coefficient of compensation between thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis (p = 0.026). Group I showed strong positive correlation between the body height and kyphotic angle (r = 0.897), and moderate positive correlation with lordosis angle (r = 0.496). Group II showed weak positive correlation with kyphotic angle (r = 0.381), and weak negative correlation with lumbar lordosis angle (r = −0.355).
Conclusions. Increasing the body height of handball players is associated with increased kyphotic and lordotic angles. Due to frequent sagittal asymmetric overloading of the spine during handball training, including exercises that help to maintain good posture and correct the thoracic kyphosis are required especially for taller players.
Key words: body height, spinal curvatures, sagittal angles
Characteristics of anteroposterior curvatures of the the spine in soccer players
Krystyna Chromik, Anna Burdukiewicz, Jadwiga Pietraszewska, Aleksandra Stachoń, Paweł Wolański, Dawid Goliński
Purpose. The aim of the present study was to determine differences in anteroposterior curvatures of the spine between futsal players, soccer players, and non-training students. The results of the study may contribute to the development of present-day knowledge of posturometry, and their implementation in training can be used to reduce the risk of body posture disorders in athletes.
Methods. The examined group consisted of 48 athletes and 38 non training college students. Body posture parameters were measured with the use of posturometr S. The normality of distribution was checked with the Shapiro-Wilk test, and the differences between the groups were measured using ANOVA and the Bonferroni post-hoc test. The level of statistical significance was set at p ≤ 0.05.
Results. The analysis of α angle values revealed the widest and most similar measurements in the group of futsal players and soccer players. The analysis of variance revealed statistically significant differences between the soccer players and futsal players (p = 0.003). The difference between the soccer players and students was statistically significant. The highest γ angular value was measured in non-training students, followed by futsal players and soccer players. The statistical analysis revealed significant differences between the students and futsal players and students and soccer players (p = 0.000).
Conclusions. Complex assessment of athletes’ body posture is crucial in injury prevention. Training overloads may often lead to disorders of the organ of locomotion and affect the correct body posture in athletes. This, in turn, may result in pains and injuries.
Purpose. Previous researches have reported postural instability in subjects with Parkinson disease (PD). However, there are still doubts about the effect of sensory stimuli on one’s balance. In this study we further investigated the stabilometric measures of individuals with PD, analyzing the impact of different sensory stimuli on the outcomes.
Methods. Twenty-six participants (13 with PD and 13 matched control peers) were submitted to eight sensorimotor dynamics differing in relation to support base (30 cm vs. 10 cm, feet in parallel vs. feet in semi-tandem position), contact surface (foam vs. no foam) and visual condition (eyes open vs. eyes closed). The measures used to assess one’s balance were body position in space, area of support base and velocity of postural control. The variables involved both the anterior-posterior and the mediolateral axes. Participants with PD were assessed during the off medication state. Mann Whitney U test and Friedman’s test were applied to carry out inter- and intra- group comparisons. Significance was set at 5%.
Results. Cross-sectional analyses illustrated that tasks with sensory pitfalls impact postural stability on a larger extend in PD subjects. The differences were found in anterior-posterior body position, area of support base, anterior-posterior velocity and mediolateral velocity. Complementary analyses confirm the great instability on balance when support bases are small and visual information are absence (p < 0.05).
Conclusions. The current results confirm worse postural stability response in subjects with PD and highlight that the interference of the sensory pitfalls is notable when individuals are off medication.
ACUTE EFFECTS OF CYCLING EXERCISE ON POST-EXERCISE BLOOD PRESSURE IN INDIVIDUALS WITH DOWN SYNDROME
Maria Edilma da Silva Bezerra, Lysleine Alves de Deus, Thiago dos Santos Rosa, Edson Eduardo Leal da Silva, Herbert Gustavo Simões, Elaine Vieira
Purpose. Studies have shown that even a single session of physical exercise lowers blood pressure after its completion. This phenomenon is called post-exercise hypotension (PEH) and has been considered as a non-pharmacological treatment to control blood pressure. However, there are no studies regarding the occurrence of PEH after acute exercise in individuals with Down Syndrome (DS). This study aimed to analyze the occurrence of PEH in these individuals and the possible role of exercise intensity. Methods. Ten individuals with DS, of both genders, participated in the study (age, 29 ± 7 years, body mass, 60.7 ± 9 kg, height, 1.48 ± 0.11 cm and BMI, 27.6 ± 2.4 kg/m²). Volunteers randomly underwent two sessions of exercise on a stationary bike for 20 minutes and one control session. Heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were measured after 15 minutes of resting, at the 20th minute of each exercise session or control, and at 15th, 30th and 45th minutes of post-exercise recovery.
Results. Both moderate and intense exercise performed acutely increased SBP (p < 0.001; p < 0.01, respectively) with no effect on DPB levels in individuals with DS. However, neither the moderate nor the intense exercise was enough to elicit PEH.
Conclusions. The results indicated that individuals with DS may not present PEH for the intensities, duration and exercise mode as applied in the present investigation. While additional studies with different exercise strategies are needed, our findings contribute to the body of literature regarding the PEH responses in adults with DS.
Key words: Post-exercise Hypotension, Down Syndrome, Moderate Exercise, Intense exercise
Purpose. The objective of the study was to find out the trend of the effects of four varieties of Bhastrika pranayama on Static Balance Ability.
Methods. Total of 75 male students were selected as subjects. Age of the subjects was ranged from 17 to 25 years. All the subjects were divided randomly in to five groups i.e. 15 in each group. They practiced four varieties of Bhastrika pranayama.
Results. Quadratic components for overall trends were found significant in Static Balance Ability. Significant difference was found between linear components of the trends for treatment groups and control group in Static Balance Ability. Significant difference was found between quadratic components of the trends for treatment groups and control group on Static Balance Ability.
Conclusions. Significant difference was found among the adjusted posttest means of four experimental groups and a control group in Static Balance Ability.