Physical Fitness and Health-Related Quality of Life in Brazilian Adolescents: A Cross-Sectional Study
Raymundo Pires-Júnior, Diogo Henrique Constantino Coledam, João Paulo de Aguiar Greca, Gustavo Aires de Arruda, Marcio Teixeira, Arli Ramos de Oliveira
Purpose. To compare physical fitness according to dimensions of Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) in Brazilian adolescents.
Methods. A cross-sectional study of 588 adolescents (263 female) aged 12 to 17 years from a private school in Londrina, Paraná, Brazil. HRQOL was assessed by the Kidscreen-52 questionnaire. Four components of physical fitness were assessed: adiposity (sum of tricipital and subscapular skinfolds), muscular strength (handgrip test), flexibility (sit-and-reach test), and cardiorespiratory fitness (20m Shuttle run test). Differences in physical fitness across terciles of HRQOL were assessed using Analysis of Covariance.
Results. Adolescents with higher scores (3rd Tercile) of HRQOL in the physical well-being dimension presented higher cardiorespiratory fitness and lower skinfold thickness (p < 0.05) compared to adolescents with lower scores (1stTercile). Those with higher scores in psychological well-being and social support and peer relation dimensions also presented lower skinfold thickness (p < 0.05). Performance in handgrip strength and flexibility did not differ across terciles of HRQOL in any dimension analyzed (p > 0.05).
Conclusions. Adiposity and cardiorespiratory fitness seem to contribute to the physical well-being dimension of HQOL in Brazilian adolescents. Furthermore, adiposity also contributes to psychological well-being and social support and peer relations. Adiposity and cardiorespiratory fitness should be monitored to avoid low HRQOL in Brazilian adolescents.
Key words: adiposity; cardiorespiratory; flexibility; handgrip strength; mental health
Agreement Between Body Mass Index and the Sum of Skinfolds in Adolescents with Different Levels of Physical Activity
Andreia Pelegrini; Andre de Araujo Pinto; Edio Luiz Petroski
Purpose. The purpose of this study was to examine the agreement between body mass index and body fat estimate among adolescents with different physical activity (PA) levels, using the sum of skinfolds as our criterion.
Methods. This was a cross-sectional study with 732 adolescent participants (63.4% of which were female), with an average age of 16.1 (±1.1) years old. The reference method used to estimate the body fat was the sum of triceps and subscapular skinfolds. BMI was calculated using body mass and height values. The PA was estimated using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire - IPAQ (short version). Bland-Altman diagrams were used to evaluate the agreement between BMI and the sum of skinfolds and were transformed into a Z score.
Results. For males, BMI overestimated body fat among those who did (mean error = -0.67; p < 0.001) and those who did not (mean error = -0.45; p < 0.001) meet the recommended PA values with a greater error observed for those who met PA recommendations. For females, BMI underestimated body fat among those who met (mean error = 0.29; p < 0.001) and did not meet (mean error = 0.41; p < 0.001) the recommended PA values with a greater error observed for those who did not meet recommendations.
Conclusions. Compared to sum of skinfolds, there was weak agreement between BMI and body fat among adolescents, especially among those with higher or lower PA levels. The use of other methods to estimate body fat in such cases is strongly recommended.
Key words: overweight, body composition, exercises, youths
Homocysteine is a non-protein amino acid and elevated blood levels are often caused by inappropriate lifestyles, leading to atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the levels of homocysteine after a 9-month training program. The group studied consisted of obese and overweight women, as well as women with normal body mass. During the training program, control examinations were carried out four times and the following parameters were analyzed: homocysteine blood levels, body mass, BMI, a single 10-minute exercise at a workload of 100W and the VO2max measured using the Astrand–Ryhming method. The highest homocysteine levels were found in obese women and the lowest in lean women. Higher levels were observed in older women (aged over 50 years) compared to younger women (aged below 49 years). The differences were clearly visible in obese women. Homocysteine levels decreased after the 9-month training program. A single exercise performed every three months during the training program resulted in an increase in homocysteine levels or no changes. Higher homocysteine levels in the blood after a single exercise are likely caused by faster metabolism of this amino acid. Exercise of moderate intensity leads to a decrease in homocysteine levels in the blood, especially in obese women. Regular physical activity should therefore be recommended not only to prevent and treat obesity but, most importantly, atherosclerosis.
Psychometric Properties of the Polish Version of the Motor Observation Questionnaire for Teachers (MOQ-T)
Agata Nowak, Marina Schoemaker
Purpose. Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) is a neurodevelopmental condition affecting 6–10% of school-aged children. DCD causes chronic motor impairments which distinguish children from their developmentally typical peers. To adapt and evaluate the psychometric properties of the Motor Observation Questionnaire for Teachers (MOQ-T) for use in a Polish child population. Methods. Physical education teachers assessed a normative sample of 348 children using the MOQ-T. Internal consistency was evaluated by calculating Cronbach’s alpha. Factor analysis was performed to investigate construct validity. A clinic-referred sample (n = 31) and a control group (n = 33) were recruited and concurrent validity was assessed by calculating correlations between the MOQ-T and the Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder (KTK). Receiver Operating Characteristic curve analysis assessed discriminative validity.
Results. Cronbach's alpha for the total MOQ-T score was 0.962. Factor analysis identified three factors: gross motor skills, fine motor skills, and general motor coordination. A negative correlation between the MOQ-T and KTK scores was found in both the control and clinic-referred groups. The AUC metric for the sample was 0.96 (CI: 0.90–1.00). Sensitivity was 0.80 for total MOQ-T scores at or above 44.5 with a specificity of 94%.
Conclusions. The psychometric properties of the MOQ-T as a DCD screening instrument in Polish school-aged children are promising. Further investigation warrants the inclusion of larger population samples and additional validity comparisons such as with the commonly used Movement Assessment Battery for Children (Second Edition).
Effect of Visual and Vestibular Information on Spatial Perception on Gait
Bruno Secco Faquin, Cristiane Regina Coelho Candido, Luis Mochizuki, Victor Hugo Alves Okazaki
Purpose. Walking demands controlling body segments based on sensory information. Experimental manipulation of sensory information provides insight about how it interacts in situations of occlusion or perturbation of such information. This study examined the effect of manipulation of visual and vestibular information on spatial perception during gait.
Methods. Thirty-two participants aged between 19-34 years old walked straight ahead for 7 meters to reach the center point of the pathway. The authors measured the number of steps, movement time, and absolute error (deviation from the center of pathway end). They analyzed six experimental conditions: without spin with vision, without spin with visual occlusion, without spin with visual perturbation, with spin and vision, with spin and visual occlusion, and with spin and visual perturbation. Friedman's ANOVA test was used to compare the experimental conditions with a significance of 5% (p < 0.05).
Results. Occlusion and perturbation of visual information, and the perturbation of vestibular information, both affected the spatial orientation. The more sources of information that were occluded and/or perturbed; the greater was the decline of spatial perception. However, participants were able to perform the task of walking in all conditions with the manipulation of sensory information.
Conclusions. The authors suggest that there is a dynamic hierarchy in which the sensory sources can contribute in a particular way, due to the constraint imposed on the system.
Does Anthropometry Influence Technical Factors in Competitive Mixed Martial Arts?
Purpose. Previous research has found grappling and strikes to the head to be the determining factors for success in MMA, whilst anthropometry in the form of stature and wingspan has been found to have a negligible effect. The current study was designed to determine if a relationship between technique use and anthropometry exists in MMA.
Methods. The in-competition technique data of 461 elite, professional MMA bouts were compared using Bayes factor t-tests (BF10) to determine which techniques display the highest likelihood of distinguishing between winners and losers. The differences in technique numbers between winners and losers was also compared to the anthropometric differences between winners and losers using either Bayesian Pearson’s r or Bayesian Kendall’s Tau. Simple linear regression (p < 0.05) was used to calculate predictive ability of anthropometrics on chosen fighting techniques.
Results. Heavyweight competitors were distinguished by striking only (BF10 = 399 – 10). Light heavyweight, middleweight, featherweight, bantamweight, women’s bantamweight and women’s straw weight competitors were distinguished predominately by striking (BF10 = 791661 - 7) and moderately by grappling (BF10 = 75 - 7). Welterweight, lightweight and flyweight competitors were distinguished by striking techniques (BF10 = 3.533e+6 – 221) to achieve dominant grappling positions (BF10 = 17100 – 50). In turn, it was found that stature and/or wingspan are correlated to and can predict key technique variables at heavyweight, welterweight, lightweight and featherweight.
Conclusions. The results provide evidence of which techniques are influenced by the anthropometric differences between competitors, allowing coaches and competitors to make more informed tactical decisions in competition preparation.
Health Behaviors of Amateur Mountain Bike Athletes
Magdalena Gruszczyńska, Monika Bąk-Sosnowska, Ryszard Plinta
Purpose. The aim of the study was to characterize health behaviors of amateur mountain biking marathon participants.
Methods. The study included 819 participants of amateur mountain biking marathons in Poland, 82.17% of whom were male and 17.83% were female. The average age of the participants was 34.85 ± 8.7 years. The tools used in the study were Juszczyński’s Inventory of Health Behaviors (IHB) and an original survey form.
Results. More than half of the participants (58.49%) displayed pro-health behaviors. The study showed a statistically significant correlation between pro-health behaviors and interpersonal status (p = 0.036), having children (p = 0.013), age (p = 0.031), and time devoted to training (p = 0.003).
Conclusions. A majority of mountain biking marathon participants display pro-health behaviors. Promoting pro-health practices and prophylactic measures among people playing sports as a form of recreation should be paid attention to.
Key words: health behaviors, mountain biking, amateur sports
Analysis of Reactive Agility and Change-Of-Direction Speed Between Soccer Players and Physical Education Students
Samo Rauter, Milan Čoh, Janez Vodičar, Milan Žvan, Josef Krizaj, Jožef Šimenko, Lukasz Szmajda, Krzysztof Maćkala
Purpose. The main goal of the experiment was to examine the differences between reactive agility (RA) as non-planned (randomly selected stimuli) movement and change-of-direction speed (CODS) as pre-planned movement among different levels of sports performance - young soccer players and physical education students.
Methods. The two groups in the study included 36 young male and female soccer players and 58 male and female physical education students. Timing for universal agility was defined by two different specification: pre-planned agility as a change of direction speed and non-planned (randomly selected stimuli) agility as reactive agility. The study used FitLight Trainer, a wireless system of interconnected light powered sensors.
Results. Soccer players were significantly faster in selected test of CODS (-1.73s; 13.1%) and RA (-2,34s; 14.3%). The greatest difference between male and female subjects was observed in the non-planned universal reactive agility UA-RA (-2.84s; 17.9%). A t-test indicated statistically significant gender differences in the selected test of pre-planned (non-reactive) and non-planned (reactive) agility among soccer players and students.
Conclusions. The practical message for coaches and related professionals is that agility in team sports (including soccer) as motor skills represent various physical qualities. Therefore, it should be diagnosed and developed via separate assessments and training.
Variations in Important Aerobic Fitness Parameters and Physical Characteristics During Two Consecutive Preseason Periods in Adolescent Soccer Players
Vasiliki Manou, Athanasios A. Dalamitros, Spiros Kellis
Purpose. This study examined the variations in selected aerobic fitness parameters, namely maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max), running velocity at VO2max (vVO2max), running velocity at ventilatory threshold (vAnT) and 1-minute post-exercise heart rate recovery (%HRrec) as well as height, body mass and percentage of body fat (%BF) in high-level adolescent soccer players. The relationship between %BF and VO2max values was also analyzed.
Methods. 25 athletes (mean age: 14.5 ± 1.3 years) were measured at the second week of the preseason period (1st period) and at the same corresponding week after a 12-month period (2nd period).
Results. VO2max, vVO2max and vAnT increased significantly by 6.6, 6.5 and 3.27%, respectively, from the 1st to 2nd period (p ≤ 0.01 - 0.05; effect size (ES) = -0.35 - 0.66). In contrast, %HRrec remained relatively unchanged (-0.5%) during the same period (p > 0.05; effect size (ES) = 0.01). %BF showed a negative trend, but no significant correlation with VO2max was found during the same period (r = -0.331; p > 0.05). Significant variations were found for height and body mass (2.64 and 11.17%; p ≤ 0.01; effect size (ES) = -0.56 and -0.72, respectively), but not for %BF (1.34%; p > 0.05; effect size (ES) = -0.27).
Conclusions. This data can provide useful information regarding physiological aerobic adaptations and changes in physical characteristics as a result of a year of soccer training, including growth and maturations processes, during the specific periods tested.
Key words: aerobic indices, anthropometrics, training year, soccer
A Single Session of Active Video Game Play Promotes Post-Exercise Hypotension in Hypertensive Middle-Aged Subjects
Taís Feitosa da Silva, Ana Carla Lima de França, Marizângela Ferreira de Souza, Alexandre Sérgio Silva
Purpose. To determine whether an active video game session promoted post-exercise hypotension, similar to walking.
Methods. Fifteen hypertensive subjects (49.0 ± 1.6 years) of both genders performed five randomized sessions, lasting 60 minutes: 1) active video game; 2) sedentary video game; 3) walking on a treadmill with moderate intensity; 4) walking on a treadmill with similar intensity to the active video game; and 5) control without exercise. Blood pressure and cardiac autonomic modulation measurements were taken at rest and every 10 minutes post exercise for 60 minutes.
Results. The active video game promoted a reduction in systolic blood pressure (-14.4 ± 3.0 mmHg, p < 0.0001) similar to walking on a treadmill with moderate intensity (-16.9 ± 3.3 mmHg, p < 0.0001), whereas the control group without exercise did not demonstrate a blood pressure reduction. The sedentary video game also demonstrated a reduction in systolic blood pressure (-10.0 ± 3.1 mmHg, p = 0.0039), statistically similar to the active video game and walking on a treadmill with similar intensity to the active video game (8.7 ± 2.9 mmHg, p = 0.0034). Regarding the diastolic component, the active video game (-7.6 ± 1.5 mmHg, p < 0.0001), walking on a treadmill with moderate intensity (-8.3 ± 2.9 mmHg, p = 0.0042), and the sedentary video game (-7.5 ± 2.7 mmHg, p = 0.0098) produced similar reductions in diastolic blood pressure. The active video game was a procedure that promoted a sympathetic-vagal balance reduction from pre-exercise to 60 minutes post exercise (4.2 ± 0.8 to 2.3 ± 0.5, p = 0.0486).
Conclusions. Active video game play promoted a similar reduction in blood pressure compared to traditional walking exercise with the advantage of promoting reduction in the sympathetic inflow to the heart.
Key words: post exercise hypotension, blood pressure, video games, exercise, chronic disease, health
Validity and Reliability of Shoulder Strength Assessment During Scaption, Internal Rotation and External Rotation Using an Anchored, Non-Modified Sphygmomanometer
Alexandre Carvalho Barbosa, Leonardo Intelangelo, Diego Bordachar, Ingrid Fernandes, Denise Cardoso, Ilha Fernandes, Wyngrid Porfírio, Diogo Felício
Purpose. To determine the validity, intra-rater reliability, and inter-rater reliability of an anchored sphygmomanometer for assessing shoulder strength during scaption, lateral rotation, and medial rotation. The hand-held dynamometer (HHD) was used as the standard measurement tool for this purpose.
Methods. Fifty subjects (23 years old ±3 years) were included in the validity study. Shoulder strength was assessed using an HHD and a sphygmomanometer, both anchored to a fixed ladder by an inextensible belt. Twenty-three subjects (25 years old ±3 years) were included in the reliability study. Two raters assessed strength, each taking two measurements one week apart, using the fixed sphygmomanometer.
Results. Validity results showed high to very high magnitude correlations, and no differences were found between the sphygmomanometer and the HHD measurements or among trials. Intra-class coefficient of correlation (ICC) showed high reliability between measurement tools and among trials. Intra-rater results showed very high ICC, very high correlation, low coefficient of variation (CV) with adequate standard error of measurement (SEM), and minimal detectable change (MDC). Inter-rater results showed moderate to high ICC, high to very high correlation, acceptable SEM and CV, but not adequate MDC. The anchored sphygmomanometer is a low-cost tool that provides objective measurements. The results obtained from the anchored sphygmomanometer were found to be similar to those obtained from an HHD, which has a valid predictive model.
Conclusions. The sphygmomanometer is suitable for monitoring shoulder strength during scaption, internal rotation, and external rotation. The anchored sphygmomanometer enables coaches and physical therapists to establish the maximal voluntary isometric contraction and monitor exercise program outcomes at a low cost. However, caution is recommended when interpreting results between raters.
Contextual Interference Effects on Motor Skill Acquisition, Retention and Transfer in Sport Rifle Shooting
Nelson Alexandre Moretto, Alexandre Jehan Marcori, Victor Hugo Alves Okazaki
Purpose. Motor learning is the response to a new experience or practice of a skill that results in the production of a new motor skill. The contextual interference (CI) effect is a learning effect which describes the benefits of interference during practice as improved skill retention and skill transfer. Though it is an established phenomenon, the efficacy of CI has not yet been proven in complex motor tasks. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyze the CI effect on motor skill acquisition, retention, and transfer in sport rifle shooting.
Methods. 32 subjects were equally divided into two practice groups: high contextual interference (HCI) and low contextual interference (LCI). Four blocks of thirty shots were performed 10 meters from the target. Three positions (standing, sitting, and lying down) were used to manipulate the CI effect. The HCI group changed positions before each shot, while the LCI group shot 10 times in the same position before changing to the next one. All conditions were randomized between groups and subjects. One week after the 120 acquisition shots, retention and transfer (15 and 25 meters from the target) tests were carried out.
Results. Accuracy between groups during the acquisition phase, retention test results, and transfer test results were similar between groups. Therefore, the CI effect was not observed in any of the phases of motor learning in sport rifle shooting.
Conclusions. It is possible these results are associated with the amount of practice, level of CI used, and complex characteristic of the task.
Key words: random practice, blocked practice, motor learning, motor skills